As noted in the previous post, I had to custom build an ISO file that included Mesos 0.23.0 in order for the nodes to join the Mesos cluster I had deployed using Big Data Extensions. There was no forking of the Photon OS code off of GitHub required, it was just a matter of building the ISO.
In order to save others time, I have made my build of Photon available on GitHub for downloading. You can download the ISO file here.
The updated SPEC file for Mesos on the official Photon GitHub repo: